The Drug Enforcement Administration has issued a final rule that, effective May 4, places the following fentanyl-related substances, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.

- ethyl (1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)(phenyl)carbamate (fentanyl carbamate)

- N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)acrylamide (orthofluoroacryl fentanyl)

- N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (orthofluoroisobutyryl fentanyl)

- N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)furan-2-carboxamide (parafluoro furanyl fentanyl)

This rule makes permanent the administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions and regulatory controls applicable to schedule I substances on persons who import, export, manufacture, distribute, possess, engage in research on, or conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis of these substances, which include the following.

- any person who engages in the above activities with respect to these substances must be registered with the DEA to conduct such activities

- all importation and exportation of these substances must be in compliance with 21 USC 952, 953, 957, and 958 and in accordance with 21 CFR part 1312

- all labels and labeling for commercial containers of these substances must comply with the requirements of 21 CFR part 1302

- any activity involving these substances that is not authorized under the CSA or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act is unlawful and potentially subject to criminal penalties

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