Ann Ganzer, director of conventional arms threat reduction at the State Department, provided the following information on international nonproliferation export control regime activities at the Bureau of Industry and Security’s annual Update conference Nov. 1.
Wassenaar Arrangement. The Wassenaar Arrangement promotes transparency and greater responsibility in international transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, and its control lists underpin the U.S. dual-use export control system. This year the WA’s 41 members are conducting an assessment of the arrangement’s processes and effectiveness and increasing their focus on terrorist access to small arms and balancing the broader benefits with the potential security risks of emerging technologies. Fifty-one proposals for changes to the Wassenaar control lists were agreed by the Experts Group this year and will be sent to the plenary meeting for approval in December.
Missile Technology Control Regime. The MTCR seeks to prevent the proliferation of unmanned delivery systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction and related equipment and technology. Key developments at the group’s most recent annual plenary include the adoption of several changes to the MTCR annex, such as the addition of controls on ultra high temperature ceramic composite materials, aerothermodynamic test facilities (such as arc jet facilities and plasma wind tunnels), gel propellants, propellant tanks, combustion chambers, and nozzles for gel propellants. Other changes to the annex were to clarify controls on re-entry vehicles, flow-forming machines, inertial measurement equipment, and software necessary to convert a manned aircraft to an unmanned aerial vehicle. India became the newest regime member this past summer.
Nuclear Suppliers Group. The NSG develops and implements guidelines for the control of nuclear and related dual-use exports and consists of most of the largest suppliers of nuclear and related dual-use technology, equipment, and material. This year the NSG discussed requests by India and Pakistan to open a dialogue on their membership and considered clarifications on software controls in the part 1 guidelines and revisions to the part 2 guidelines. The NSG plenary meeting this past summer adopted six new technical changes to the part 1 and part 2 lists.
Australia Group. The AG seeks to harmonize export controls to prevent the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. At the plenary meeting this year members agreed to intensify the group’s focus on emerging technologies that can be used for chemical and biological weapons and on impeding chemical and biological terrorism. Members also agreed to continue sharing approaches to challenges posed by intangible technology transfers, proliferators’ procurement of unlisted items, proliferation financing, online procurement, and transshipment.